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sundarban

 

Sundarban Tiger Reserve

State

West Bengal

History

Altitude (above M.S.L.)

5.8 - 6.1 m.

Sundarban Tiger Reserve was created in 1973, and constituted as a Reserve Forest in 1978. The current core area was established as a National Park in 1984. Recognising the region and its unique biodiversity, the National Park was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1985. The entire Sundarban area was declared a Biosphere Reserve four years later.

Area

Total

2585 km

Core

1330 km

Buffer

1255 km

Flora and Fauna

Sundarban is part of a vast estuary in the Bay of Bengal. The mangrove forests are the only tiger habitat of its kind. The trees and other wildlife have adapted to the estuarine conditions of high salinity, lack of soil, erosion and daily overflow by high tides. An estimated 270 tigers are found here.

Temperature

20C - 34C

Rainfall (per annum)

1920 mm

Fauna

Tiger, fishing cat, spotted deer, wild boar, gangetic dolphin, water monitor, estuarian crocodile, river terrapin, olive ridley turtle, ground turtle, hawks bill turtle, king crab, etc.

Forest Types

Tidal Swamp Forests, Saline Water Type Mixed Forests, Brackish Water Type Mixed Forests, Palm Swamp Type

Funds

Insufficient

Management Objectives

Staff

Understaffed

Protection from poaching and external influences such as prawn fishing is a primary concern. Boats patrol the area, soil conservation is practised and man-animal conflicks are being addressed.

Problems

Prawn fishing is a great problem. Tiger prawn larvae are caught for prawn farms through drag netting. Many organisms are destroyed in this process. The river embankments are also damaged, preventing mangrove regeneration, often leading to floods. Poaching of fish and timber through pirates are common. A large human population depends on the natural resources of Sundarban.

External Influences (1991 census)

Villages

100

Livestock numbers

None

 

 

 
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