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periyar

 

Periyar Tiger Reserve

State

Kerala

History

Altitude (above M.S.L.)

100 - 2016 m

A dam was constructed across the periyar river in 1895. The forest around the new lake was declared a Reserve Forest in 1899. In 1934 it was established as Nellikkampetty Sanctuary. This was extended and renamed Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in 1950. It became a Tiger Reserve in 1978, with the core area declared a National Park in 1982.

Area

Total

777 km

Core

350 km

Buffer

427 km

Fauna and Flora

Periyar Lake is the nucleus of the Tiger Reserve; It provides water to an extensive area. 1963 species of flowering plants have been documented, along with a large variety of animals. Among them are 49 mammal species, 265 bird species, 36 reptile species, 12 amphibian species, 35 fish species and 160 species of butterflies. An estimated 30 tigers are found in Periyar.

Temperature

15C - 31C

Rainfall (per annum)

2500 mm

Seasons

Winter

Dec - Jan

Summer

Apr - May

Monsoon

Twice a year

Forest Types

West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests,
West Coast Semi Evergreen Forests,
Moist Deciduous Forest,
Southern Montane Wett Grassland,
Eucalyptus Plantations

Fauna

Tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, sambar, wild dog, barking deer, lion-tailed macaque, nilgiri langur, nilgiri tahr, etc.

Funds

Insufficient & delayed

Management Objectives

Staff

Untrained & understaffed

Effective fire-protection measures have promoted natural regeneration of the grasslands. Planting of exotic trees has been discontinued and existing plantations are being converted back to natural forests. The construction of water sources is also a priority.

Problems

Grazing and occasional fires are a problem. Poaching occurs and the inaccessible terrain makes protection difficult. The main electric line that runs through the reserve has electrocuted a number of animals, including 8 elephants. Ganja cultivation exists in the interior areas. Trees are felled for this purpose and people camp illigally in the forest for the 6 month harvest period, causing more damage to the environment.

External Influences (1991 census)

Villages

58

Human population

225,000

Livestock numbers

2,000

 

 

 
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