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Tiger Reserves



Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve


Tamil Nadu


Altitude (above M.S.L.)

40 - 1800 m

Initially the reserve consisted of two adjacent wildlife sanctuaries. The area of the Kalakad Reserve was declared a Tiger sanctuary in 1962 and notified as a sanctuary in 1976. The Kalakad and Mundanthurai wildlife sanctuaries were made into a single Tiger reserve in 1996.



895 km˛


537 km˛


358 km˛

Fauna and Flora

This reserve is part of one of the world’s 18 biodiversity hotspots. A rich variety of forests is found here, the Tirunelveli forest alone has 2105 recorded plant species. The wet season lasts up to eight months, supporting a lush and unique vegetation. An estimated 23 tigers inhabit the reserve.


°2C - 44°C

Rainfall (per annum)

2125 mm

Forest Types

Southern Hill Top Tropical Evergreen Forests, West Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests, Tirunelveli Semi-Evergreen Forests, Dry Teak Forests, Southern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests, Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests, Carnatic Umbrella, Thorn Forests, Ochlandra Reeds, Tropical Riparian Fringe Forests, Euphorbiaceous Scrub, High and Low Altitude Grasslands


Tiger, leopard, rusty spotted cat, wild dog, sloth bear, elephant, gaur, sambar, spotted deer, mouse deer, nilgiri langur, slender loris, bonnet macaque, lion tailed macaque, brown mongoose, malabar giant squirrel, nilgiri martin, Indian pangolin, king cobra, python, monitor lizard, flying lizard, pit viper, etc.


Insufficient & delayed

Management Objectives


Untrained & understaffed

The general objective of the management is to conserve biodiversity. Efforts have been made to educate, motivate and involve people from the peripheral villages.


Efforts to eliminate livestock grazing have so far been ineffective. Fires are less of a problem as much of the forest receives enough rainfall to prevent outbreaks. Human encroachment causes a threat and must be controlled. Some of the areas in the reserve are vulnerable to poaching but so far no case of tiger poaching has been recorded.

External Influences (1991 census)

Human Population


Livestock numbers



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